2009 Human Rights Report:
Discusses the growing use of witchcraft in Tanzania and how this relates to killings of persons with albinism.
U.S. Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
United States; Department of State; Human Rights; 2009; Witchcraft; Albino; Albinism.
U.S. State Department website. Accessed, May  27, 2010.
A Global Village Saves Albino Kids from Slaughter
An African school principal, a Dutch fundraiser and a Mormon housewife are building a sanctuary for some of Kenya's most vulnerable citizens.
Piazza, Jo
Albino; Albinism; Protection; Kenya; School.
Tonic.Com. Accessed October 16, 2010.
A Health Intervention Programme for Children with Albinism at a special school in South Africa
A self-report study of 38 students with albinism in South Africa. They are assessed for skin  and vision related challenges they face. A further assessment on their social adaptation is also included.  An examination of results leads to the suggestion that intervention in the lives of persons with albinism ought to be holistic (encompassing health and social aspects) as well as interactive.
Lund, Patricia, Gaigher, Retha
Albino; albinism; special school; education;  health; Siloe school; South Africa.
Health Education Research, Vol. 17 No. 3, 365 - 372.
Actinic Damage and Skin Cancer in albinos in northern Tanzania:
findings in 164 patients enrolled in an outreach skin care programme
164 persons with albinism in rural northern Tanzania are examined for skin cancer among other things. Findings showed a very high incidence of pre-cancerous skin damage in patients.  Authors recommend that PWAs in this region remain indoors as much as possible and wear protective clothing.
Lookingbill, D.P., Lookingbill, D.L., Leppard, B.
Albinism; Albino; Actinic Cheilities; Sun damage; Tanzania; Northern Tanzania
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology,  32, 653-658.
Advocacy Report
Through Albino Eyes: The Plight of albino people in Africa’s Great Lakes region and a Red Cross response
Overview of the "plight of persons living with albinism in the Great Lakes region" and an assessment of the "possibilities for an expanded humanitarian response."
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. "Red Cross"
Albinism, Great Lakes Region; East Africa;  Humanitarian;  International Response; Red Cross.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
Rising Number of Children Accused of 'Crime of Witchcraft'
Children and persons with albinism in sub-Saharan Africa are becoming increasingly vulnurable to physical and psychological attacks stemming from accusations that they are witches. The United Nations Children's Fund produces a report on the issue aiming to present relevant statistics and to rationalize why and how some of these accusation and practices are both historical and new.
Redfem, Paul
Albino; Witchcraft; Killings; Occult; Africa; Capitalism; UNICEF; Children.
All Africa online (From The East African, Kenya). Accessed July 27, 2010.
Persons with Albinism are Facing Real Threat to Life
Persons with albinism across sub-Saharan Africa have every reason to be worried.  They are threatened by stigmatization which in turn is fuelled by lack of education on the condition. The Albinism Society of Kenya (ASK) seeks to improve the plight of persons with albinism in the country.  
Masakhwe, Phitalis Were
Albino; Albinism; Kenya; Albinism Society of Kenya (ASK); discrimination; sub-Saharan Africa
All Africa Online (Catholic Information Services for Africa, Nairobi). Accessed July 29, 2010.
African Leaders Buying Human Albino Parts: Group
Coumba Makalou, president of the U.S.-based Salif Keita Global Foundation links the sale of albino body parts to politicians in parts of Africa, who believe such macabre trade will bring them good fortune.
Associated Press
Albino; Albinism; Body parts; Politicians; Africa.
News24. Accessed September 13, 2021. 
Albinism and Skin Cancer in Southern Africa
Research shows that skin cancer is found to be at an overall rate of 23.4% from a sample of  111 persons with albinism tested in Johannesburg, South Africa.  Recommendations are made for preventing skin cancer in persons with albinism.
Kromberg, Jennifer G.R., Castle, David, Zwane, Esther M.
Albino; Albinism; Skin cancer; South Africa; Johannesburg.
Clinical Genetics 1989: 36: 43 - 52.
Albinism and The Contingencies of Stigma
A medico-anthropological perspective on albinism in sub Saharan Africa. Analyzes stigma and processes of stigmatization against persons with albinism in certain countries of sub Saharan Africa. Focuses on Cameroon and Tanzania.  Examples also from Nigeria, Malawi, Congo, Burkina Faso and Zimbabwe.
McLeod, Thomas
Albinism; Africa; Stigma; Stigmatization
Dissertation (unpublished) University College of London
Albinism in Africa as a Public Health Issue
Literature review of the prevalance  of albinism in Africa. Data taken from Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Nigeria is reviewed. Occurrence of albinism is found to range from 1 in 5,000 to 1 in 15,000. The number of persons with albinism in Africa is estimated to range in the tens of thousands. In all, albinism is presented as a public health issue that necessitates a response in its health, pscyhological and social aspects.
Hong, Esther S., Hajo, Zeeb, Repacholi, Michael
Albinism; Albino; Prevalence; Population; Cancer; Social; Pscyhcological; Health; Nigeria; Zimbabwe; Tanzania; South Africa.
Biomedical Central, online. Accessed July 29, 2010.
Albinism in Malawi:
Knowledge and beliefs from an African setting
On  knowledge. beliefs and attitudes towards persons with albinism in Malawi.
Braathen, Stine H., Ingstad, Benedicte
Albino; Albinism; Quality of life; Africa; Malawi; Stigma; Discrimination; Myth; Beliefs; Disability; Sunscreen; Visual aids.
University of Oslo, Norway, and SINTEF Health Research, Norway. In Disability & Society, Vol. 21, No. 6, October 2006, pp. 599 - 611.
Albinism in Negro Children
42 subjects who are persons with albinism - 14 boys and 28 girls - are interviewed over a 10 year period. The extent to which the physical appearance of the subjects affects their social and individual attitude is assessed.  A comparative study on Intelligence levels of the subjects versus the levels of their non-albino siblings is also presented.
Beckham, Albert S.
Albinism; Negro; Black; African.
Journal of Genetic Psychology, 1946, 69, 199 - 215.
Albinism in Nigeria with Delineation of New Recessive Oculocutaenous Types
79 persons with oculocutaenous albinism in Nigeria are examined. Of the 79, 53 have  tyrosinase positive albinism, 23 had "brown albinism."  Brown albinism is described as a new ocolocutaenous type and is characterized as having light brown skin, light brown hair, blue to brown eyes. Studies on albinism by Dr. Okoro of the Univeristy of Nigeria  in 1975 are further expantiated  in this study. Albinism was found to occur as frequently as 1 in every 1,500 in the city of Lagos.
King, Richard A., Creel, D., Carvenka J. et. al.
Albinism; Albino; Brown albinism; Oculoutaenous Albinism; Tyrosinase-positive.
Clinical Genetics, 1980: 17: 259-270.
Albinism in Nigeria:
A Clinical and Social Study
Albinism in Nigeria is more common in the southern parts of the country.  The reason for this is attributed to inbreeding among members of thesame clan or townships. Persons with albinism face hostility both from the society and from the sun. 1,000 persons with albinism in Nigeria are studied here which showed that no person with albinism over 20 years of age in this group was without malignant or pre-malignant skin lesions.
Okoro, A.N.
Albino; Albinism; Nigeria; Occurrence; Skin Cancer; Health; Social relations; Education.
British Journal of Dermatology, (1975) 92, 485.
Albinism in the South African Negro
III. Genetic Counselling Issues
35 albino South African subjects are comparatively analyzed with a corresponding number of non-albino South Africans. Subjects are assessed for adjustment to albinism as well as attitudes of non-albinos to persons with albinism. Authors discover that little is known about albinism as a genetic condition and conclude that public education is needed in this regard both for persons with albinism and for the society at large. Issues that might be taken into account when counselling a person with albinism are also discussed.
Jenkins, Trefor, Kromberg, Jennifer
Albino; Albinism; Myth; Education; South Africa; Counselling; Attitude Adjustment
Journal of Biosocial Science  (1984), 16: 99 - 108
Albino (11) Shot, Beheaded
An 11 year old girl with albinism from Swaziland is abducted by an armed man who also fatally shoots her in front of witnesses.
Maziva, Sizwe
Swaziland; Albino; Albinism; Abduct; Shot; Killed; 11 year old; Girl
Times of Swaziland. Accessed August 20, 2010.
Albino African Seeks Spain Asylum
An 18 year old male with albinism from the country of Benin, west Africa, seeks asylum in Spain. He cites fear of ritualistic killing as in Tanzania.
Albino; Benin; Asylum; Moszy.
BBC. Accessed July 27, 2010.
Albino Girl Killed for Body Parts
A six year old Burundian girl with albinism is reported as the 6th victim of attack on persons with albinism in the country since September 2008.
Albino; Albinism; Burundi; Killing; attack.
BBC. Accessed July 23, 2010.
Albino Girl Murdered in Tanzania
A 9 year old girl with albinism is murdered in Segese village of Kahama district, Tanzania.  The killers used a machete to cut off the victim's legs and they also made off with some hairs.
Albino; Albinism; Tanzania; Killing; Mutiliation; Kahama District.
BBC. Accessed July 29, 2010.
Albino Girl Shot, Mutilated
"An albino girl has been killed at Ondiyaneni in Shiselweni. The girl, 11-year-old Banele Nxumalo's murder is the latest chilling ritual killing of albinos, an obsession that has gripped many parts of Africa, especially the east where it is believed the blood of an albino makes strong muti. Banele was at a river at Sigudvuma when two men alighted from a car and started accosting the children who had come to collect water."
Mkhonta, Starsky
Swaziland; Albino; Albinism; Abduct; Shot; Killed; 11 year old; Girl; Banele Nxumalo.
Swazi Observer. Accessed August 20, 2010.
Albino Killer Sentenced to Death
"A Tanzanian court sentences a  50-year-old man to death by hanging after being convicted of murdering an albino girl in 2008."
Albino; Killing; Court; Justice; Death Sentence; Hanging; Tanzania.
Independent Online (From South African Press Association & Agence France-Presse) (SAPA-AFP). Accessed July 27, 2010.
Albino Killing Craze Stares at Ghana
The town of Bukruwa in eastern Ghana is cited as dangerous for persons with albinism. The Chief of the town, Nana Agyare Osei Tutu III, admits the danger of ritualistic killings of persons with albinism in the area and also confirms that they cannot fight such traditional actions but can only warn persons with albinism to seek refuge in a designated quarter on the outskirts of town. President of the Albino Society of Ghana, Mr. John Davies is leading an educational campaign to sensitize the populace on the human rights persons with albinism.
Koomson, Fiifi
Albino; Albinism; Ghana; Albino Society of Ghana; John Davies; President.
Modern Ghana.
Albino Killings Cause Fear and Anxiety
A citizen reporter summarizes the fear that has consumed the albino population in Tanzania and neighbouring Burundi. Hundreds of persons with albinism are reportedly in hiding. Parents of persons with albinism often have to go into hiding with their children which means a phsycal separation from their communities and also their sources of livelihood.
Theophile, Mugisho N.
Albino; Albinism; Killings; Fear.
Broowaha (United States) Citizens' Newspaper. Accessed July 28, 2010
Albino People in DR Congo Suffer Discrimination and Exclusion
Persons with albinism and their mothers face discrimination and marginalization in DR Congo in ways that affect nearly all aspects of their lives: health, career and personal relationships. The UN, through the UN Development Program sponsors a rights workshop on the issue.
UN News Service
Albino; Albinism; DR Congo; Human Rights; Discrimination.
 UN News Service. Accessed July 29, 2010.
Albino People in Uganda Want to Be Treated in The same Category
Persons with albinism have petitioned the Government to include them in the category of persons with disability to enable them benefit from development programmes.  Joseph Katete, the chairman of the Elgon Foundation for Persons with Albinism (EFPA) lists reasons why it is necessary for persons with albinism to get governmental support legislatively and the associated financial assistance.
Omolo, Leo Odera
Albino; Albinism, Disability; Law; Uganda; Parliament; Government; Affirmative Action.
Jaluo.com (Blog). Accessed October 16, 2010.
Albino Victim Evicted from Safe-House
Mariam Staford Bandaba, a 28 year old woman with albinism in Tanzania lost both limbs to attackers. She is now at further risk as the state government wishes to evict her from the "safe house"  which they had granted to protect her.
Daily News, Tanzania
Albino; Albinism; Woman; attack; Mariam Staford Bandaba; Tanzania; Safety; Security.
Daily News, Tanzania. Accessed July 28, 2010.
Albino's Grave Dug Up, Bones Taken
The grave of a person with albinism from Izengwabasumba settlement in Nyamalulu village, Geita district in Tanzania was descretated early July 2010. The grave of Zawadi Mangidu (22), was vandalized even though it was cemented on the surface. The vandalizers dug through from the non-cemented parts of the grave, exhumed the body and filled the dug-out area with sand.
Burke, Jean
Albino; Albinism; Desecrated Grave; Zawadi Mangidu; Nyamalulu; Geita; Tanzania
On the Spot: Albinos in Tanzania (Blog). Translated from Nipashe, a Kiswahili paper. Accessed July 30, 2010.
Albinos Call for Public Hanging of Murderers
The 3 men accused of the murder of a 13 year old boy with albinism were found guilty and sentenced to death. The three men: Masumbuko Madata, 32, Emmanuel Masangwa, 28, and Charles Kalamuji, alias Masangwa, 42, are from the region of  Shinyanga and plan to appeal the guilty verdict.
Naluyaga, Raj, Magubira, Patty, Shija, Felician
Tanzania; Court; High Court of Kahama; 3 accused; Murder of 13 year old; Murder of 14 year old; Murder of boy; convicted; conviction of 3 men.
All Africa Online (From The Citizen, Tanazania). Accessed July 23, 2010.
Albinos Call for Special Attention
The Ghana Association of Persons with Albinism (GAPA) calls on the government to group persons with albinism as persons with disabilities. The Association made this appeal during their recent lecture themed: 'Albinism: the myth and the reality.' They cite The Disability Act 715 as inadequate in its restrictive definition of disabilities which excludes persons with albinism. The lecture was given by Prof. Edmond Nminyem Delle, Director of Rabito Health Ltd and lecturer at the University of Development Studies who listed some challenges albinos on the continent faced including the myth that such a child was a taboo or a curse.
Albino; Albinism; Ghana; Lecture; Ghana Association of Persons with Albinism; GAPA;  Myths and Realities; Taboo; Curse.
Ghananewslink.com. Accessed August 5, 2010.
Albinos Demand Special Seat in Parliament
In follow-up to an earlier petition, "Lawmaker Wilson Nokorach, who represents persons with disabilities from northern Uganda, tabled a petition on behalf of the Uganda Albino Association in Parliament "
Gyehazo, Emmanuel
Albino; Albinism; Uganda; Petition; Parlimament; Government of Uganda.
All Africa Online: (From The Monitor, Uganda) Accessed July 28, 2010.
Albinos Find Voice in Tanzania
NPR interviews Alshymaa Kwegir, a peson with albinism on her appointment as member of parliament of Tanzania and on issues arising out of the atrocities currently committed against persons with albinism.
Corley, Cheryl
Albino; MP; Member of Parliament; Kwegir; Alshymaa; Killings; Tanzania; Government
NPR Radio (National Public Radio - United States). Accessed July 27, 2010.
Albinos want own Member of Parliament
Persons with albinism in Uganda petition Member of Parliament and Deputy Speaker of the house, Ms Rebecca Kadaga on the creation of a seat for a person with albinism. Petitoners also plead for recognition as a "disabled" group.
Tebajjukira, Madinah
Albino; Albinism; Uganda; Petition; Parlimament; Government of Uganda
The New Vision. Accessed July 28, 2010.
Albinos, Long Shunned, Face Threat in Tanzania
On killings of persons with albinism in Tanzania, Kenya and Congo. On fear in the lives of albinos in Tanzania, and the influence of witchcraft from Nigerian movies.
Gettleman, Jeffrey
Tanzania; KIllings; Kenya; Congo; Witchcraft; Nigerian movies.
New York Times. Accessed July 23, 2010.