Psychological Aspects of Albinism:
An Exploratory Study with Nigerian (Igbo) Albino Subjects
Some common psycho-social issues that persons with albinism are confronted with in society. Subjects are 3 persons with albinism from the Igbo tribe of eastern Nigeria.
Ezeilo, Bernice
Albino; Albinism; Nigeria; Igbos; University; Students; Psychology; Pscyhological aspects.
Social Science & Medicine,  Vol.29, No. 9 pp. 1129 - 1131, 1989.
Reconsidering Witchcraft:
Postcolonial Africa and Analytic (Un) certainties
On the rise of witchcraftt in post-colonial Africa as a means of coping with the values and attributes of capitalism including wealth, and materialism.
Sanders, Todd
Witchcraft; Africa; Capitalism; Tradition
American Anthropology, 105(2): 338 - 352.
Regional Parliament Decries Albino Killings
Members of the East African Legislative Assembly (EALA)  including Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Burundi and Rwanda push for concerted efforts to curb albino killings through the prosecution of killers in the region.
Ubwani, Zephania
Albinio; Albinism; Killings; East Africa; East Africa Legislative Assembly; Interpol; East Africa Community
United Nations Association of Tanzania. Accessed July 28, 2010.
Rise in African Children Accused of Witchcraft
A report produced by the United Nations Children's Fund cites the growing trend in the accusation of children as witches in parts of Africa. Some of these children are being tortured and murdered as a result. This is explained as a relatively new trend linked to urbanization and war.
BBC News
Witchcraft; UN; Africa; Children.
BBC News. Accessed July  21, 2010.
Salif Keita Brings "La Difference" to Dar Es Salaam
Salif Keita, the acclaimed international musician with albinism who is originally from Mali performs a concert in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, in the protest and awareness of the killings of persons with albinism.
Salif Keita; Dar Es Salaam; La Difference; Music; Concert.
All Accessed October 16, 2010.
Senegal: Albinos Face Perilious Social Rejection
Persons with albinism in Senegal decry harsh social treatment and stigmatization that leaves most of them destitute and in dire straits. The Senegalese National Albino Association and the Senegalese Ministry for Family strives to improve their plight but faces difficult financial constraints.
IRIN (United Nations)
Albino; Albinism; Education; Senegal; Senegalese National Albino Association; Stigmatization; Health; Skin Cancer; Government response.
Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN). Accessed July 28, 2010.
Sir Archibald Garrod’s “Inborn Errors of Metabolism”
A bio-chemical survey on the manifestation  and absence of melanin or pigmentation in humans.
Knox, Eugene
Albinism; Biology; Bio-Chemistry; Chemistry; Melanin; Pigment
The American Journal of Human Genetics,  Vol. 10 No. 3,  2003,  277- 296
Skin Cancer in African Albinos
Skin pigmentation and environmental factors probably account for the difference in skin cancer types between Africans and Caucasians. This study reports on malignant skin tumors found in normally pigmented as well as persons with albinism as seen in a hospital in Zaria, Nigeria. In the result, persons with albinism in Nigeria are said to have a lifespan of a bout 30 years.
Yakubu, Alkassim, Mabogunje, Oluwatope
Albino; Albinism; Skin cancer; Nigeria; Pigment; Life span.
Acta Oncologica, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 621-622. 1993.
Skin Cancer:
Shagari Makes Case for Albinos
At thr 4th national conference on albinism in Nigeria, statesmen, including former head of state, S. Shagari, urged for more government action for the prevention of skin cancer in persons with albinism.  Albinos in Nigeria are said to have suffered "untold neglect and discrimination over the years."
Aminu, Mohammed
Albino; National Conference; Nigeria; The Albino Foundation; Skin Cancer; Ignorance
This Day (Nigeria). Accessed july 30, 2010.
Skin cancers in albinos in a teaching Hospital in eastern Nigeria - presentation and challenges of care
Study of cancer rates in persons with albinism  at Imo State University Teaching Hosptial between 2007 and 2009. Study revelaed that 67 percent of primary skin cancers recorded there were in persons with albinism. 61 percent of skin cancer patients where also less than 40 years of age.  Late presentation and poor rate of completion of treatment due to poverty, were major challenges to patient care.
Opara, Kingsley, Jiburum, Bernard
Albino; Mariamu Staford; Prosthetics; ABC News; 20/20.
7th Space Interactive - Credit Source: World Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2010, 8: 73. Accessed September 5, 2010.
Southern Africa:
Too White to Be Black - The Challenge of Albinism
Persons with albinism in Southern Africa: Zimbabwe, Malawi, and South Africa express similar challenges around social stigmatization, misconceptions, and health issues especially skin cancer.
IRIN (Integrated Regional Information Networks (United Nations)
Albino; Albinism; Zimbabwe; Southern Africa; Malawi; Stigmatization; Zimbabwe Albino Association (ZIMAS); Prof. John Makumbe; Health; Human rights.
IRIN. Accessed July 29, 2010.
Studies on Albinism in the South African Negro
28 albino subjects tested for intellectual maturity and body image perception. Results are compared with a control group of non-albino South Africans
Jenkins, Trefor, Kromberg, Jennifer , Manganyi, Noel
Albino; Negro; African; Intellect; Intelligence; Body Image;  Oculocutaneous; South Africa
Journal of Biosocial Science 6 (1974): 107 - 112
Surprise of Tanzania's albino MP
Ms. Al-shymaa Kway-Geer, a Tanzanian woman with albinism, is appointed as a Member of the  Parliament of Tanzania by President Jakaya Kikwete. Ms. Kway-Geer cites the education and health needs of persons with albinism in the country and looks to use her appointment to help the plight of this group.
Albino; MP; Member of Parliament; KweY-Geeir; Alshymaa; Killings; Tanzania; Government.
BBC: Accessed July 28, 2010.
Swaziland: Trade in Albino Body Parts Moving South
In the wake of the killing of Banele Nxumalo in Swaziland, IRIN reports that the killings are muti-related and likely directed at creating potions to combat ailments such as HIV which is common in Swaziland
Albino; Killings; Swaziland; Banele Nxumalo; Muti.
IRIN: Accessed September 5, 2010
Taking a Stand Against Discrimination
2 German Ministers, Ministers Westerwelle and Niebel, visit the Ocean Road Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The hospital is the only cancer clinic in Tanzania. Here they give a gamma camera for detecting tumors to a person with albinism. They also visit members of the Tanzania Albino Society to show awareness and solidarity in the wake of the recent atrocities against persons with albinism.
Auswartiges Amt - The Federal Foreign Office of Germany
Albino; Albinism; Tanzania; Germany; Government; Ocean Road Hospital; Skin Cancer.
Auswartiges Amt - The Federal Foreign Office of Germany. Accessed July 28, 2010.
East Africa's Albino Underworld
Vicky Ntetema of the BBC tells how she brought international attention to the issue of killings of persons with albinism in Tanzania and east Africa. A summary of the intricacies of the macabre trading of albino body parts and similar atrocities commited towards persons with albinism in other parts of Africa is presented. The responses of international and other development non-governmental organizations such as Under The Same Sun are briefly discussed.
Jody Ray Bennet
Albino; Albinism; Witchdoctor; killings; body parts; Africa; Vicky Ntetema.
NGO News Africa. Accessed July 28, 2010
Tanzania Fear Over Albino Killing
Report comments on 4 killings of persons with albinism over 3 months in 2007. An albino spokesman laments government's in-action and lack of response. The BBC's Vicky Ntetema confirms fear of attack in the albino community.
Tanzania; Killings; Government.
BBC News. Accessed July 23, 2010
Tanzania Fights Human Skinning
An exhibition showing human body parts and skin is launched in Dar es Salaam Tanzania in an effort to discourage and bring awareness to the growing use of body parts in witchcraft rituals in the country.
BBC News
Witchcraft; Tanzania; Exhibit; Skin; Human Organs; Exhibition
BBC News. Accessed July 21, 2010
Tanzania in Witchdoctor Crackdown
President Kikwete of Tanzania orders crackdown on those witchdoctors that are involved in the use of body parts of persons with albinism in making potions calling it "sensless cruelty.
Albino; Albinism; Tanzania; Witchdoctor; President Kikwete; Government.
BBC. Accessed July 27,2010.
Tanzania suffers rise of witchcraft hysteria
On the growing rise of deaths and physical maiming related to witchcraft in rural Tanzania and the government's lack of response to this growing trend.
Duff, O.
Witchcraft; Tanzania.
The Independent (London). Accessed, July 12, 2010
Tanzania to Hang Blood-Drinking Killer of Albino Girl
The High Court of Mwanza, Tanzania convicts 50 year old, Kazimiri Mashauri in the brutal murder of a 5 year old girl with albinism. This case is the second murder conviction arising out of the recent killings of persons with albinism in the country.
Ng'wanakilala, Fumbuka
Albino; Killing; Court; Justice; Death Sentence; Hanging; Tanzania.
Reuters (Dar es Salaam). Accessed July 28, 2010.
Tanzania's Albino Murder Crisis
In the wake of the recent atrocities against persons with albinism based on the belief that magical potions made with the organs of persons with albinism will bring wealth and success, some persons with albinism have formed a soccer team - "Albino United "- to show in their own way, that persons with albinism are humans too.
Channel 4
Albino; Albinism; Tanzania; Myths.
Channel 4 (U.K.).
albinos are “a walking deal”
On the on-going kilings of persons with albinism in Tanzania. The role that Red Cross is playing: setting up a fund to alleviate the issue and assit the victims. Highlights commetns from Rukia and Fatuma who are victims of an unsuccessful attack. Also comments from Hamis Ngomera of the Tanzania Albino Society.
Wanjiru, Anne
Tanzania; Killings; Rukia; Fatuma.
The International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Accessed July 23, 2010.
Tanzania: Living in Fear: Daylight Provides no Protection for Albinos
Persons with albinism suffer from the harsh sunlight in Tanzania and other African countries. Lack of education force many Tanzanian persons with albinism to work outside of buildings - on farms for example. Lack of education on the need to use sun screen and/or sun protective clothing further complicates the danger posed by the sun on this group of persons.
Wanjiru, Anne
Albino; Albinism; Tanzania; Ocean Road Cancer Institute; Skin Cancer; Tumor; Lifespan.
International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Socieites (IFRC). Accessed, July 29, 2010.
Tanzanian 'Witch Killers' Charged
20 people in Tanzania are charged with the murder of 7 men who they had accused of practicing witchcraft.  A secret ballot had been conducted in which the names of alleged witches and wizards were deposited. The accused witches and wizards were threatened to leave the area or face the "consequences." Those who organized the murder of the 7 included village officials and prominent personalities in the area. Report also  shows that the use of, and trade in human organs is becoming more common place in some parts of the country.
Ntetema, Vicky
Witchcraft; Tanzania; Human organs; Justice.
BBC. Accessed July 29, 2010.
Tanzanian Woman With Albinism Gets New Arms
On the help afforded to Mariamu Staford, the 28 year old Tanzanian woman with albinism who lost both of her arms to a brutal attack. This is the story of her new prosthetic arms, and how she intends to use them.
Diaz, Joseph
Albino; Mariamu Staford; Prosthetics; ABC News; 20/20.
ABC News: Accessed September 5, 2010
The Fetishization of Albinos in Tanzania
From abstract: "While rumors of organ stealing and the efficaciousness of albino body parts have been going on for a long time in Tanzania, there seems to be a recent spike in the killing of albinos. These killings are an intensification of an old story that began in pre-colonial Central Africa. People materialize and utilize fetishized notions of the productive magic of albino body parts. The consumption of magical paraphernalia supposedly made from albinos’ bodies is imagined to counteract the decline of the fishing industry. The story of albino killings is about the fantastic speculation of value, and this value supports the localized economy. This illustrates the desire to create and sustain specific market commodities out of albino body parts. Some say this is a story about the economy, the neoliberal, or a functionalist explanation of albino killings. Others suspect this is ultimately a story of the cumulative effects of the circulation of rumor and discourse. These contrasting views are woven to tell the story of alleged albino killings while presenting an alternative interpretation, which suggests that Tanzanian elite utilize these rumors to gather social authority and political legitimacy while benefitting from the moral hierarchy of modernity versus tradition.
Caroline Ackley
Albino, killings, myths, Tanzania, economics
The First Miss Progress International is Tanzanian
A Tanzanian, Ms. Julieth Lugembe conquered the jury and the whole world at the first edition of Ms.Progress International held in Taranto, Italy. She won on the platform of aiding persons with albinism in her home country.
i-News Wire
Ms. Progress International; Tanzanian; Albino; Pageant; Italy; Human Rights.
i-News Wire. Accessed October 16, 2010.
The Human Rights Case of Persons with Albinism in Uganada
The lives of persons with albinism in Uganda show that "When a group is defined as anything less than human, acts of discrimination become acceptable." Hence prevailing myths that de-humanize persons with albinism has contributed to their suffering, stigmatization and killing. Article highlights the work of Kelly Allen of Beloit College, titled "Oppression Through Omission: The Human Rights Case of Persons with Albinism in Uganda."
Comer, Barry
Albino; Albinism; Uganda.
Conducive Chronicle. Accessed July 28, 2010.
The Meaning of White
A North American mother's story of raising a child with albinism.
Emily Urquhart
North America; albinism;
The Walrus
The Tanzanian Human Albino Skin
A sample of persons with albinism are studied at the Tanzania Tumor Centre. An extremely high skin cancer prevalance is recorded. Graphic photos of sun-burnt skins and pre-cancerous skin conditions in some persons with albinism are presented.  Also included are discussions on why persons with albinism tend to be hairier than non-albinistic persons, as well as the correlation of better education to better skin health.
Luande, J., Henschke, C., Mohammed, N.
Cancer, 1985, 55: 1823-8.
The Terror of Being a Black Child with a White Skin
On the on-going atrocities commited against persons with albinism inspite of  efforts to raise awareness with documentaries such as "The Curse of the Nobody People" by Sam Roberts. Also narrates the story of Bibianna and Tindi, 2 young persons with albinism who are currently under the care of Tanzania Member of Parliament, Al Shaymar Kwegyir.
de Groot, Sue
Albino; Albinism; Tanzania; Killing; Mutiliation; Bibianna; Tindi; Al Shaymar Kwegyir.
The Sunday Times, South Africa. Accessed July 29, 2010.
They Call us Albino - the License to Mock and Murder Fellow Humans
A satirical op-ed by a person with albinism, on living with albinism in Kenya and east Africa.
Ngugi, Mumbi
Kenya; Albino; Albinism; Stigma; Discrimination.
Saturday Nation. Accessed August 20, 2010.
Tolerance and Tension:
Islam and Christianity in Sub Saharan Africa
Survey report on "the role religion plays in the private and public lives of the approximately 820 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa" including graphic illustrations of statistics around religious issues across the sub-continent.
The Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life
Religion; Sub Saharan Africa; Africa; Christianity; Islam; Tension; Tradition; Survey.
The Pew Research Center's Forum on Religion & Public Life. Accessed August 15, 2010.
Wangode David Struggles to Show the Way for Other Albinos.
A Uganadan man with albinism, David Wangode, chronicles the challenges he faced in his attempt to create an albino association in Uganda. He also tells his story of stigmatization due to his albinism.
Woodward, Jonathan
Albino; Albinism; Uganda; David Wangode; Association; Government.
CBC News (Canada). Accessed July 28, 2010.